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Gestion de populations de rongeurs dans un contexte leptospirosique

Abstract : Management of rodent populations is important because they can cause various economic, ecologic and health problems. This management relies on prevention methods, these ones being architectural, hygienic and agricultural practices. It relies on biologic, chemical and mechanic control methods. Chemical control methods are made mainly with the use of anticoagulant rodenticide acting several hours after ingestion to provide food eviction. Excessive use of these molecules led to resistance selection of some individuals yielding their use underperforming. Then there has been new molecules development, but they are more ecotoxic. In these thesisworks we are interested in management of rodent populations within a framework of health risk of leptospirosis. Rodents are main reservoirs of pathogenic leptospires, Spirochete bacterias responsible of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a worldwide re-emerging zoonosis of which there are approximately one million of cases each year and of which there is an increasing number of cases these last years. It is endemic in tropical regions. It is a disease of which real incidence is underestimated because of especially large variability of possible symptoms ranging from flu syndrome to renal forms. Mortality rate is high around 10% and up to 50% in certain cases with pulmonary complications. Numerous factors influence on complex transmission cycle of leptospirosis. There can be health risk associated with presence of rodent carriers of pathogenic leptospires, which can be difficult to control if rodents are resistant to anticoagulant rodenticides used to regulate their populations. Furthermore, there can have exposition problems to ecotoxic risks throughout establishment of chemical treatment. We studied several concrete cases showing the difficulty in decision-making relied with rodent management in various contexts. In a context of economic problems, we analysed pathogenic leptospires carriage by meadow voles and ground voles as well as target resistance to bromadiolone, used molecule in chemical control of low population density. We are interested in influence of societal perception on health risk relied with mice in bovine farming in which there are human and bovine leptospirosis cases. In framework of a project leading to study efficiency of commensal rodent populations management in Martinique in a leptospirosis context, we looked rodent exposition to AVKs and target resistance to AVKs. For pathogenic leptospires carriage by voles we found prevalence ranging from 3% to 53% according to studied area. There were 3 mutations on vkorc1 gene leading to few target resistances to bromadiolone. In the bovine farming we found especially that societal perception of the breeder underestimated risk relied with mice of which 41% were carriers of pathogenic leptospires and 50% were carriers of vkorc1 gene mutations leading to target resistance to AVKs. In Martinique we found that 54% of analysed individuals have been exposed to at least one AVKs molecules and that there were several vkorc1 gene mutations in which certain were not characterised yet leading to target resistance to AVKs. Rodent management is a complex problem with several factors to take into account whether risks relied with rodent exposition or those relied with the use of anticoagulant rodenticides. Furthermore, the concept of risk is scientific but the perception which is subjective participates in decision-making of a way of management
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 26, 2021 - 1:01:22 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03120916, version 1

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Aurélie Marquez. Gestion de populations de rongeurs dans un contexte leptospirosique. Génétique des populations [q-bio.PE]. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE1010⟩. ⟨tel-03120916⟩

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