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Paléopathologie dentaire et époque contemporaine : le cimetière des Crottes à Marseille, 1784–1905

Abstract : In France, modern periods have only recently been included in biological anthropology and few osteoarchaeological collections are available for research. Following the excavations of the cemetery of Les Crottes (Marseille), in 2013 and 2014, an extensive collection was assembled, providing an opportunity to characterise the health status of a population that experienced significant changes driven by the industrial revolution. Our study attempts to identify the health consequences of the profound socioeconomic changes of the 19th century, from osteological data and primarily from analyses of dental pathologies. Dental wear, antemortem tooth loss, caries and enamel hypoplasia were recorded in the 229 individuals whose dental remains were preserved. The results reveal a high prevalence of antemortem tooth loss and caries, with limited dental wear, in a context of significant dietary changes, poor oral hygiene and limited access to dental care. Moreover, the high frequency of enamel hypoplasia suggests that deficiencies were common during childhood. Finally, the diachronic analyses performed for the accurately dated inhumation phases show a progressive increase in the different pathologies over the period studied. The combination of biological, archaeological and historical data show a precarious health status despite medical and scientific progress and the first steps towards public health measures.
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Marie Perrin, Yann Ardagna, Anne Richier, Aurore Schmitt. Paléopathologie dentaire et époque contemporaine : le cimetière des Crottes à Marseille, 1784–1905. Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris, Springer Verlag, 2019, 31 (3-4), pp.153-170. ⟨10.3166/bmsap-2018-0035⟩. ⟨hal-02865527⟩



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